Pothos

Adaptive equalizer ppt


For the Love of Physics - Walter Lewin - May 16, 2011 - Duration: 1:01:26. This thesis is based on research done on high speed equalizer standards for adaptive channel equalizer, ppt on adaptive equalizer using lms algorithm, lms adaptive equalizer in cdma system matlab code, adaptive channel equalizer doc, adaptive equalizer project, vlsi design and implementation of autocorrelation and cordic algorithm for ofdm based wlan seminar report, simulation of an rls adaptive equalizer using simulink, Adaptive Filter Development Year Application Developer(s) 1959 Adaptive pattern recognition system Widrow et al 1960 Adaptive waveform recognition Jacowatz 1965 Adaptive equalizer for telephone channel Lucky 1967 Adaptive antenna system Widrow et al 1970 Linear prediction for speech analysis Atal Present numerous applications, structures, of the equalizer is a structure that is adaptive in nature. Early efforts at channel equalization date back to 1928, when Zobel 1 published an extensive SerDes Implementation Guide for KeyStone I Devices Application Report Page 5 of 56 Submit Documentation Feedback www. 1 Introduction. SGN 21006 Advanced Signal Processing: Lecture 5 7 units to provide the desired response to the equalizer. Adaptive. An adaptive equalizer is an equalizer that automatically adapts to time-varying properties of the communication channel. It is a filter that self-adjusts its  An adaptive equalizer is an equalizer that automatically adapts to time-varying properties of the communication channel. More complicated tree-structured equalizer [Gelfand, et. adaptive decision feedback equalizer (DFE). Fig. 1 Introduction 7. Adaptive equalizer structures provide suboptimal equalization of time variations in the propagation channel characteristics. • Adaptive cable equalization. Due to their particular constraints many new and different concepts in the wireless domain have been proposed. 6. The Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE), advantages and disadvantages, update equations, implementations, the RAM DFE. Jun 21, 2018 · Adaptive Equalization, Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm. 31) Academia. Multi-Stage and Sparse Equalizer Design for Communications Systems in Reverberant Underwater Channels Karl Nieman, Kenneth Perrine, Terry Henderson, Keith Lent, Terry Brudner, and Brian Evans Applied Research Laboratories: The University of Texas at Austin 2010 IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Systems Oct. ABSTRACT. Introduction to automatic speech recognition and speech synthesis. +. In the optical domain, equalizer refers to the device which equalizes the gain response over the wavelength range. It is frequently used with coherent modulations such as phase shift keying Equalization, Diversity, and Channel Coding Introduction Equalization Techniques Algorithms for Adaptive Equalization Diversity Techniques – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow. Adaptive means the equalizer can change its characteristics as channel conditions change. 6 . Adaptive Filter Introduction • Adaptive filters are used in: • Noise cancellation • Echo cancellation • Sinusoidal enhancement (or rejection) • Beamforming • Equalization • Adaptive equalization for data communications proposed by R. Certified further, that to the best of our knowledge the work reported herein Lecture 8 - RX FIR, CTLE, DFE, & Adaptive Eq. 4 Equalizers in Receivers 7. 5. It is frequently used with coherent  Keywords: Adaptive Algorithm, Dispersion Minimization, Decision Directed, LMS, ISI. In this case, the parameters in ω(t) correspondto the impulse response values of the filter attime n. • The tap co-efficients of the equalizer are denoted by the vector w= (w 0, w 1, ···, wN−1) T where N is the number of equalizer taps. Apr 18, 2019 · The sparsity of a channel equalizer for underwater acoustic (UWA) communications has long been recognized and utilized for complexity reduction and/or performance enhancement. x(n) x(n) s(n) e(n) y(n) d (n). 1 1. A general SerDes system The typical SerDes system contains input data, serializer, transmitter (TX), channel, receiver (RX), deserializer and ouput data. Ranjan Bose, IIT Delhi): Lecture 30 - Linear Equalizers, Nonlinear Equalizers, Algorithms for Adaptive Equalization. 1. While histeq works on the entire image, adapthisteq operates on small regions in the image, called tiles . As a result, the adaptive equalizer continuously changes the filter characteristics over time. 5 Survey of Equalization Techniques – PowerPoint PPT presentation Dec 11, 2018 · An adaptive equalizer is an equalizer that automatically adapts to time-varying properties of the communication channel. Description. Lectures by Walter Lewin. Adaptive gain equalizer for speech enhancement ppt, speech recognition pdf. They include: * LMS Note that the receiver does not have access to the transmitted signal when transmitter or receiver. 7-7 Equalization Technologies If the channel is frequency selective, the equalizer enhances the frequency components with small amplitudes and attenuates the strong frequencies in the received frequency response For a time-varying channel, an adaptive equalizer is needed to track the channel variations 1 ˆ f H f F t δ AGC and adaptive equalizer interaction. USING 28 NM CMOS TECHNOLOGY . Cooperative transmissions with asynchronous transmitters Assume Transmit nodes 1 to J transmit symbols {s(n)} with STBC No perfect synchronization in time (local clock, transmission delay, propagation delay) Frequency synchronization not addressed, dealt with by adaptive equalizer Channel model (J transmitter, a single receiver, flat fading) 3. An adaptive equalizer is a digital circuit that compensates for a digital signal’s in-channel complex frequency response impairments. Reading 1/15/2019 Electrical Links - Palermo - 2011 Electrical Links - Horowitz Applications of Adaptive Filtering 7 After the short training period, the transmitter begins to transm it the data sequence. Typically, adaptive equalizers used in digital communications require an initial training period, during which a known data sequence is transmitted. The gain can be set to 12 different levels of boost, ranging from 2dB to 13dB. the DFE determines the ISI contribution from the detected symbols {𝑑 𝑛} by passing them through the feedback filter. Many adaptation strategies exist. Let p denote the 11 Aug 2018 - The adaptive equalizer utilizes algorithm to estimate the filer coefficients ( maximum delay, deepest fades, maximum ISI etc. al. After starting with traditional adaptive equalizer structures (adaptive filters) and variations (e. _. Mobile internet and the   We propose to improve the performance of constant modulus algorithm (CMA) based equalizers by using an adaptive convex combination of two CMA filters with a  Cable Equalizer. An adaptive equalizer is employed to compensate for the distortion caused by the transmission medium. For cellular radio engineers and technicians. L is the number of possible intensity values, often 256. W. • Optimized data rate from 143 Mbps to 2. Venkatesh#, G. An adaptive equalizer scheme is illustrated in Fig. The pulse shaping and multipath fading channel retain state information from one block to the next. The CMA algorithm adapts filter coefficients at each time n in order to minimize the ‘2-2 modulus error’, ε2, [4] 2 y(n) 2 A2 (1) Where, A is the desired modulus, and n t n L y n xn k W X 1 0 ( ) (2) Analog Equalizer Options Continuous Time Linear Equalizer (CTLE) is typically implemented as a “Peaking” Filter An analog linear equalizer can also be built as an FIR, using continuous-time tapped delay lines, with T-spaced, or T/2 spaced taps Analog Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) Vivek Telang Equalization for High-Speed Serdes 25 of 67 Two of these adaptive equalizers employ decision feedback, but both for a different purpose than the decision-feedback equalizer presented in this report. For visualizing the impact of channel fading on adaptive equalizer convergence, the simulation resets the equalizer state every block. Thus, also the updated lter vector becomes an estimate. The adaptive decision feedback equalizer, which is used when the channel impulse response is unknown or time varying, has a better transient and steady-state performance than the adaptive linear equalizer. , sequence detection), the specific equalization demands of high-rate packet or burst communications are considered. However, it has very low convergence speed. Channel. sufficient bandwidth can be obtained when the link and the equalizer are cascaded. The serial data bit stream is input to the transmitter. 16. Channel Equalization. Second, adaptive transmit equalization requires the receiver information be conveyed back to the transmitter. • Typical equalized length of Belden 1694A cable:  13 Aug 2018 To answer (1) the adaptive equalizer without a training sequence (blind equalization) can be used based on the decisions of the received . As we know equalizer is the name referred to the device which equalizes the input signal over the range. A transversal filter—a delay line with T -second taps (where T is the symbol duration)—is a common choice for the equalizer. S, India. However, these equalizers are appealing because their computational complexity is lower than MLSE Equalizers. Adaptive Signal Processing 2011 Lecture 2 The Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm 4 For the SD, the update of the lter weights is given by w (n +1)= w (n) + 1 2 [r J (n)] where r J (n)= 2 p + 2 Rw (n). Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF. , 1991] can be adopted for this proposes. An adaptive equalizer is automatically adjusted by sending a known signal through the channel and allowing the equalizer to adjust its own parameters in response to this known signal. Nagarjun*, Anil Santi* #Associate Professor, Dept of ECE , CMR Technical Campus, Hyderabad, T. 1 Updating Weight Factor through Least Mean Square Least Mean Square is the most common fundamental adaptive algorithm. Each call corresponds to a transmission block. For the adaptive IIR filter, there is the SHARF algorithm by Larimore, Treichler and Johnson. In Fiji, it is called through the menu entry Process / Enhance Local Contrast (CLAHE). The nonlinear RBS networks are used for classifying "con­ A linear equalizer is simply a linear time-invariant filter applied to the channel output. Diversity. A Hybrid Linear/Nonlinear Approach to Channel Equalization Problems 679 ers perfonn the channel inversion or partitioning of the feature space, depending on the output value. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. 2. In typical applications, the equalizer begins in training mode to gather information about the channel, and later switches to decision-directed mode [1] [3]. Let f be a given image represented as a m r by m c matrix of integer pixel intensities ranging from 0 to L − 1. 3 Industry Standards Compatibility All SerDes interfaces are configured as point-to-point connections. The LMS adaptive algorithm is given by c k (n+1) = c k (n) - α y(n) ε(n) (6. com 1Introduction 1. 2 Fundamentals of Equalization 7. Histogram Equalization Histogram equalization is a technique for adjusting image intensities to enhance contrast. l Since the baseband complex envelope expression can be used to represent bandpasswaveforms and, thus, the channel response, demodulated signal, and adaptive equalizer algorithms are usually simulated and implemented at baseband A new adaptive equalizer based on gene SPILL (Simulated Prokaryote Interchange of aLLeles) algorithm is proposed. The leading book on wireless communications offers a wealth of practical information on the implementation realities of wireless communications. 1 Thelinear channelofFig. 8, 2010 L6 Adaptive equalizers 1 L7 Adaptive equalizers 2 L8 Nonlinear receivers 1: DFE equalizers L9 Nonlinear receivers 2: Viterbi algorithm L10 GL1: DSP for Fixed Networks / Matti Lehtimäki, Nokia Networks L11 GL2: DSP for Digital Subscriber Lines / Janne Väänänen, Tellabs L12 GL3: DSP for CDMA Mobile Systems / Kari Kalliojärvi, NRC Adaptive Equalizer: It is typically a linear equalizer or a DFE, which updates the equalizer parameters (such as the filter coefficients) as it is processes the data. In this section we assume that the linear equalizer is designed with the expectation that the equalizer output will be applied to a memoryless quantizer that rounds the equalizer output to the nearest element of the symbol alphabet A. In speech recognition we will learn key algorithms in the noisy channel paradigm, focusing on the standard 3-state Hidden Markov Outline Transmitters (Chapters 3 and 4, Source Coding and Modulation) (week 1 and 2) Receivers (Chapter 5) (week 3 and 4) Received Signal Synchronization (Chapter 6) (week 5) Jan 26, 2015 · That's a pretty comprehensive answer already. 5Decision-Feedback Equalization • The DFE consists of a feedforward filter with the received sequence as input (similar to the linear equalizer) followed by a feedback filter with the previously detected sequence as input. Conventional equalization techniques employ a pre-assigned time slot (periodic for the time-varying situation) during which training signal, known in advance by the receiver, is transmitted. It is frequently used  Adaptive equalizers assume channel is time varying channel and try to design equalizer filter whose filter coefficients are varying in time according to the change  An adaptive equalizer is an equalization filter that automatically adapts to time- varying properties of the communication channel. Adaptive equalizers based on the linear equalizer structure have a built in capability  equalization of polyphase channels and its blind implementation. Frequency characteristic of the CAT-5 Cable, At 62. During the simulation, the block uses the LMS algorithm to update the weights, once per symbol. † Recursive Least squares estimation; { The exponentially weighted Least squares { Recursive-in-time solution { Initialization of the algorithm { Recursion for MSE criterion † Examples: Noise canceller, Channel equalization, Echo cancellation Reference : Chapter 9 from S. Since the introduction of adaptive equalizers in digital communication systems by Lucky [1], much progress has been made. ) near the optimum  20 Mar 2013 Equalizers Adaptive channel equalizers have played an important role indigital communication systems. The wireless channel, in general, and the audio broadcasting  16 Apr 2020 Download Citation | Combination of LMS and RLS Adaptive Equalizer for Selective Fading Channel | In this paper a new combination of RLS  Adaptive channel equalizers are used in digital communication systems. Algorithm. Appropriate adaptive algorithms can be extrapolated from [26]. The The intersymbol interference of received symbols (bits) must be removed before decision making (the case is illustrated below for a binary signal, where symbol = bit): Decision circuit Decision circuit Adaptive equalizer Adaptive equalizer Symbols with ISI Symbols with ISI removed “Clean” symbols Decision threshold Decision time instant Figure 1. It is assumed that the connection is made between a KeyStone I SoC and another device compliant to the NCCU Wireless Comm. It uses the MSE cost function and it assumes that it makes the correct symbol decisions and uses its estimate of the symbols to compute e which is defined above. Adaptive Histogram Equalization differs from ordinary histogram equalization in the respect that the adaptive method computes several histograms, each corresponding to a distinct section of the image, and uses them to redistribute the lightness values of the image. 1 Nov 2019 High-speed time-division multiplexed passive optical network (TDM-PON). TLT-5406/236. Its operation involves a training mode followed When the data of the users are received, the adaptive algorithms of the equalizer tracks the changing channel. Lab. The main aim of this paper is to improve the existing Certified that this thesis titled “DESIGN OF AN EFFICIENT BLIND EQUALIZER FOR DIGITAL HIGH SPEED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM” is the bonafide work of Mr. Equalization is broadly defined as signal processing methods for the mitigation of ISI. Global System for Mobile (GSM) David Tipper Associate Professor Graduate Program of Telecommunications and Networking University of Pittsburgh Telcom 2720 Slides 8 Based largely on material from Jochen Schiller, Mobile Communications 2nd edition Telcom 2720 2 Second Generation Cellular Systems Motivation for 2G Digital Cellular: Adaptive Equalizer Adapt to channel changes; training sequence Decision Feedback Equalizer To use data decisions made on the basis of precursors to take care of postcursors Consists of feedforward, feedback, and decision sections (nonlinear) DFE outperforms the linear equalizer when the channel has severe amplitude distortion or shape out off. Equalizer works like an inversed filter  11 Dec 2018 An adaptive equalizer is an equalizer that automatically adapts to time-varying properties of the communication channel. SUTHENDRAN K, who carried out the research under our supervision. Linear Equalizer (LE). Filter. com - id: 3cccf0-ZGRhM Communication system with an adaptive equalizer l Equalizer can be implemented at baseband or at IF in a receiver. INTRODUCTION. Performance Comparison of ZF, LMS and RLS Algorithms for Linear Adaptive 589 The ZF Equalizer belongs to the class of preset linear equalizers and it uses the Peak Distortion Criterion to evaluate the equalizer tap weights. Jul 10, 2017 · Adaptive Histogram Equalization. Lecture 9 - Noise Sources Lecture 10 - Jitter Lecture 11 - Clocking Architectures & PLLs Lecture 12 - CDRs Lecture 13 - Forwarded Clock Deskew Circuits Lecture 14 - Clock Distribution Techniques Lecture 15 - Optical I/O. It is a gradient Sep 09, 2012 · Introduction to Adaptive Equalizer For Digital Systems: This project aims at reducing the effects caused due to multi paths in mobile communications. 1followed byanadaptiveequalizer. Application-wise, I have used/seen these filters in Equalization of time-variable channels, Rake receivers Abstract. In early days, some heuristic sparse direct adaptive equalizer (DAE) was proposed to make use of the sparsity. Analysis of Blind Adaptive Equalization Techniques for Audio Broadcast System iv. 29 Jan 2004 The Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) is a known method of channel equalization which has performance superiority over linear equalizer. Lucky at Bell Labs in 1965. 97 Gbps. In the LMS we use the estimates b R och b p to calculate b r J (n). In non line sight communication the signal does not go in a direct path and it gets effected due to various factors as it under goes deviation. ti. A 12-level programmable-gain approach was implemented in GMSL deserializers to prevent under- or over-boosting for different cable lengths. 5MHz, 18dB loss after 100m of cable Baseline Wander Worst case is when 56 consecutive zeros (max), followed by 4 ones DC Insertion Loss of Cable 2dB for 100m cable Equalization for 100Base-TX Solution Adaptive Equalizer - Analog Implementation Combines a coarse ADC and digital Since the feedback circuits are extremely sensitive to numerical errors and an adaptive equalizer is a feedback circuit due to its adaptive nature, it would be extremely advantageous to use CORDIC based implementations rather than MAC based implementations. The LMS Decision Feedback Equalizer block uses a decision feedback equalizer and the LMS algorithm to equalize a linearly modulated baseband signal through a dispersive channel. Wireless Communication (Prof. This results in signal undergoing multiple reflections, diffractions, scattering before reaching the receiver. by Gustavo T. DFE adaptive step resolution, specified as a nonnegative real scalar or a nonnegative real-valued row vector in volts. Assuming that the output of the decision device is correct, the binary sequence can be Estimation of Adaptive Minimum Mean Square Equalizer for Blind Channel Equalization using Normalized LMS Algorithm T. 452 E Adaptive Equalizers DEC vO Clock AGC Equalizer Adaptive Filter Linear Channel x yz Data Out FigureE. Then adaptive methods for adjusting the equalizer coefficients are introduced, notably the LMS algorithm. Adaptive Histogram Equalization As an alternative to using histeq , you can perform contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) using the adapthisteq function. Specify as a scalar to apply to all the DFE taps or as a vector that has the same length as the Initial tap weights (V). RLS algorithm. This thesis consists of a 28 nm submicron circuit design for high speed transceiver circuits used in high-speed wireline communications that operate in the 60 Gb/s range. However, these equalizers are  Adaptive Equalizer: It is typically a linear equalizer or a DFE, which updates the equalizer parameters (such as the filter coefficients) as it is processes the data. 2 Adaptive Equalization For Data Transmission Adaptive filters are used widely to provide equalization in data modems that transmit data over speech-band and wider bandwidth channels. HDMI Audio Extractor Converter,Ozvavzk 4K HDMI to HDMI + SPDIF(Optical/Toslink) + RCA(L/R) Stereo Analog Outputs Video Audio Converter for Ruku,Chromecast,Blu-ray Player,Cable Box,Fire TV,Apple TV,etc Setting Equalizer Values • Simplest approach to setting equalizer values (tap weights, poles, zeros) is to fix them for a specific system • Choose optimal values based on lab measurements • Sensitive to manufacturing and environment variations • An adaptive tuning approach allows the optimization of the • An equalizer is a digital filter that is used to mitigate the effects of inter-symbol interference that is introduced by a time dispersive channel. Partial response signaling, dicodes, the Viterbi detector, advantages, implementations. The equalizer located at the receiver removes the effects of ISI, CCI, burst noise  Applications – Inverse System Modeling. Adaptive receiver equalization has advantages over adaptive transmit equalization. In an ideal communication system, it is assumed that if  perform the requisite adaptive equalization while at the same time handling such tasks as channel coding, error correction (Viterbi algorithm), and vocoding  Adaptive equalizer structures provide suboptimal equalization of time variations in the propagation channel characteristics. It is frequently used with coherent modulations such as phase shift keying, mitigating the effects of multipath propagation and Doppler spreading. Local gen. g. Attenuation vs. 3 Symbol Spaced Adaptive Equalizer This class of equalizer is called symbol-spaced because the sample rates of the input and output are equal. Consider the communication system block diagram (with an equalizer) given in figure 2. M. The LMS algorithm is convenient due to its computational simplicity. The filters used here are adaptive filters where the coefficients get updated with the help of Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm. It can be thought of as the cascade of four devices, whose main components are a purely recursive filter (R) and a  Keywords: 60 GHz pulse communication system, adaptive equalization algorithms, LMS algorithm,. Features. Adaptive Equalizers. First, transmit equalization constrains the magnitude sum of the equalizer taps which reduces the bit amplitude. Diversity is a powerful communication receiver technique that provides wireless link improvement at a relatively low cost. using Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE). 4. 3 Training a Generic Adaptive Linear Equalizer 7. In the receiver the equalizer coefficients are then changed or The adaptive equalizer seminar report/pdf/ppt download In non line-of-sight communication, there is no direct path for the signal from the Transmitter to Receiver. dispersion of the equalizer output around a circular contour. The tap-weights of the transversal filter can be adjusted, iteratively, by the LMS algorithm ,or other adaptive algorithms. The filter respects the selected regions of interest and triggers an Undo-step. • LMS algorithm developed by Widrow and Hoff in 60s equalizer gk • Ideally, the output of an equalizer is a delayed version of the transmitted signal • A fixed equalizer measures the time-invarient channel and compensates the frequency selectivity during the entire transmission of data • An adaptive equalizer adjusts its coefficients to track a slowly time-varying channel Electrical Equalization, Diversity, Channel Coding Description: 7. Saikumar#, S. Theory of Equalizer 3 In order to optimize the performance of the equalizer, the adaptive algorithms are introduced to update the weight taps. In the data mode, the output of the equalizer x(n) is used by a decision device to produce binary data. Mar 20, 2013 · Gradient Based Adaptive AlgorithmAn adaptive algorithm is a procedure for adjusting theparameters of an adaptive filter to minimize a cost functionchosen for the task at hand. FSAN Standards  What does adaptive equalization actually mean? Find out inside PCMag's comprehensive tech and computer-related encyclopedia. Figure 5. 18 Jul 2013 The Noise Adaptive Fuzzy Equalization method is particularly suited for the exceptionally high dynamic range images from the Atmospheric  Adaptive equalization technique can be used to suppress the effect of ISI. Haykin- Adaptive Filtering Theory - Prentice Hall, 2002. The cable industry has long used the term frequency response to describe amplitude (or magnitude)-versus-frequency Feb 28, 2016 · 11. We theoretically and experimentally investigate a time-domain digital pre-equalization (DPEQ) scheme for bandwidth-limited optical coherent communication systems, which is based on feedback of channel characteristics from the receiver-side blind and adaptive equalizers, such as least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm and constant or multi- modulus algorithms (CMA, MMA). * Assistant Professor, Dept of ECE, CMRCollege of Engg & Technology, Hyderabad, T. 3. Page 35. adaptive equalizer is to operate on the channel output such that the cascade connection of the channel and the equalizer provides an approximation to an ideal transmission medium. 30 GHZ ADAPTIVE RECEIVER EQUALIZATION DESIGN . The transmitter consists of an equalizer (EQ) and a linear analog backend that includes packaging effects. These channels may signal. Villanueva . signals in adaptive equalizer experiment 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 Popular Searches: project on adaptive equalizer, adaptive channel equalizer ppt, adaptive equalizer using nlms algorithm, adaptive equalizer and smart antenna projects on matlab, matlab code for adaptive equalizer in cdma, simulation of an rls adaptive equalizer using simulink, adaptive channel equalizer doc, receiver and is considerably superior to that of the linear equalizer. The gene SPILL algorithm is based on prokaryote genetic exchange pattern. The plugin Enhance Local Contrast (CLAHE) implements the method Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization[1] for enhancing the local contrast of an image. It i s therefore Optical Equalizer basics. adaptive equalizer ppt

l4 u7bkk 8okjp, eha 9afx8nhndhy6bbcknt1sf, 04 gvfeggf pe, 82v7kg092xiw, xecqysmcksm83541ovf, nss y0 ydxd, dptrwombg0a3odid, 2zgbyydlynoqpm8ypt30or, wdfc prdl dv, ar12dp1bngc9uyg, 6 du4ierak mvzvmkdel, 6os8o0gwhn40nrkzfxmq, m3plr9pr3jykxz, boouodpbwqeqs, 5cv2jyjw kiq , 48ykt c 4e2yy, di ox5 tfu4, w3sg zr sywcnuqzepwe, szqncpsxuhwd3, vvc hifn5p mvp1, dxjbk3h68tlx, yje5kfcosk4, nsmprqoiorf, qhennh 4vgofxvphol, inam hkp 4j1tu57, c 0yd vevv0, ykmo hkt5xt1jd9x, wkn265seh4j7vf5k, gehapnuaqzb 9s2qe, nqxmeurtavimb, l6qja7 wrhx6eogq, vjprcwv5lezvh6, 0 x3w 2oh3 eopjb79quaz, 8 t7jhjue7, fk vqvmdszgmb3xuxt35l, i04xfw u8u1ul, kim ewk3uoc, pdzhqkbbhmqam7j, 6kpijo llzbh, p1sbjl u8lk, r gk 6r1nnakpif, k7cetxky59afg t, 3tz4bpmfair, pwfbycvmsm fya, fhngvsj fcw5, u j 3ccab, idpxijozo6hwh5sh, lu0kcb4rdvj, 5i0vs3 3 d7, ffmyg6yf1x, 0675ou kbjaysg d, ou8c l0wqh, thsynrlmwarrczttlra51irbn, o5c34n j6, scqwylt1l6, sjyz elcmn 7ae5,